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Electron Doping of Ultrathin Black Phosphorus with Cu Adatoms

TitleElectron Doping of Ultrathin Black Phosphorus with Cu Adatoms
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsKoenig, Steven P., Doganov Rostislav A., Seixas Leandro, Carvalho Alexandra, Tan Jun You, Watanabe Kenji, Taniguchi Takashi, Yakovlev Nikolai, Neto Antonio H. Castro, and Özyilmaz Barbaros
JournalNano Lett.
Date Publishedapr
Keywords1st-principles, 2-dimensional materials, adatoms, black phosphorus, doping, field-effect transistors, graphene, inverter, MoS2, optoelectronics, passivation, phosphorene, semiconductor, transistor, Transport, wse2

Few-layer black phosphorus is a monatomic two-dimensional crystal with a direct band gap that has high carrier mobility for both holes and electrons. Similarly to other layered atomic crystals, like graphene or layered transition metal dichalcogenides, the transport behavior of few-layer black phosphorus is sensitive to surface impurities, adsorbates, and adatoms. Here we study the effect of Cu adatoms onto few-layer black phosphorus by characterizing few-layer black phosphorus field effect devices and by performing first-principles calculations. We find that the addition of Cu adatoms can be used to controllably n-dope few layer black phosphorus, thereby lowering the threshold voltage for n-type conduction without degrading the transport properties. We demonstrate a scalable 2D material-based complementary inverter which utilizes a boron nitride gate dielectric, a graphite gate, and a single bP crystal for both the p- and n-channels. The inverter operates at matched input and output voltages, exhibits a gain of 46, and does not require different contact metals or local electrostatic gating.


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