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Surface Functionalization of Black Phosphorus via Potassium toward High-Performance Complementary Devices

TitleSurface Functionalization of Black Phosphorus via Potassium toward High-Performance Complementary Devices
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsHan, Cheng, Hu Zehua, Gomes Lídia C., Bao Yang, Carvalho Alexandra, Tan Sherman J. R., Lei Bo, Xiang Du, Wu Jing, Qi Dianyu, Wang Li, Huo Fengwei, Huang Wei, Loh Kian Ping, and Chen Wei
JournalNano Lett.
Date Published07/2017
Keywordsblack phosphorus, complementary devices, crystal-structure, electron mobility enhancement, electronics, field-effect transistors, giant electron doping, graphene, MoS2, optoelectronics, p-n-junction, potassium, transition-metal dichalcogenides, Transport

Two-dimensional black phosphorus configured field-effect transistor devices generally show a hole-dominated ambipolar transport characteristic, thereby limiting its applications in complementary electronics. Herein, we demonstrate an effective surface functionalization scheme on few-layer black phosphorus, through in situ surface modification with potassium, with a view toward high performance complementary device applications. Potassium induces a giant electron doping effect on black phosphorus along with a clear bandgap reduction, which is further corroborated by in situ photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations. The electron mobility of black phosphorus is significantly enhanced to 262 (377) cm(2) V-1 s(-1) by over 1 order of magnitude after potassium modification for two-terminal (four-terminal) measurements. Using lithography technique, a spatially controlled potassium doping technique is developed to establish high-performance complementary devices on a single black phosphorus nanosheet, for example, the p-n homojunction-based diode achieves a near-unity ideality factor of 1.007 with an on/off ratio of similar to 10(4). Our findings coupled with the tunable nature of in situ modification scheme enable black phosphorus as a promising candidate for further complementary electronics.


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